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Villista issues

Jalisco Villista

So-called Villista/Convencionista factions on the southwest of the state issued a series of notes to facilitate commerce. As these were very local (DelgadoRicardo Delgado, Las Monedas Jaliscienses durante la Epoca Revolucionaria, Guadalajara, 1938 does not mention them) and related to the eventual losers, little is known about them, including their sequencing, with the exception of the Autlán issues, which are documented in the local municipal archive. There was a wide variety of types, which might be down to different issues or differences within issues.

Among the military commanders were Roberto Moreno, Pedro Zamora, José Sánchez Gómez and Vicente Alonso Teodoro. Roberto Moreno was a prominent hacendado in Unión de Tula. At his hacienda de San Clemente the constant demands from military chiefs led him to take up arms and form a self-defence militia. He joined forces with Pedro Zamora to gain control over a wide swathe of territory. Despite being a major landowner, in his jurisdiction he abolished the tiendas de raya and cancelled workers’ debts. Moreno refused offers of amnesty and continued fighting until his death in 1917.

In contrast, Pedro Zamora was born to a poor peasant family in El Limón, in 1890. After a vicious youth he formed a group that adopted Constitutionalism and joined Obregón when he arrived in Jalisco. He followed Lucio Blanco in supporting the Convention and after a defeat, regrouped in Unión de Tula, where he declared himself a Convencionista and proclaimed religious liberty, in contrast to Manuel Dieguez’ anti-clericalism. With Roberto Moreno he attacked Díeguez’ forces, and in 1915 the Villista governor, Julián Medina, named him jefe militar of Autlán. After Villa’s defeat, the Carrancistas launched a campaign against Zamora and on 16 October 1916 Ramón F. Iturbe defeated him in Unión de Tula and, a little later, in El Grullo. He still had solid support in the region, violently refused an offer of amnesty by sacking Cocula, and continued to attack federal and state troops. The government finally mobilised 12,000 troops to get him. He surrendered on 12 November 1920 and was assigned to the hacienda of Canutillo, Durango, under Villa’s responsibility. He went missing in February 1921, was arrested in Mexico City and executedPedro Zamora stole his horse "Tlacuache" from General Jacinto Cortina, the owner of the Hacienda de Telcampana.

José Sánchez Gómez was a farmer and businessmen in La Huerta, where he enjoyed prestige as the local cacique. He also rebelled against the Constitutionalists’ attacks on his property, and held out until he accepted an amnesty in 1920.

Vicente Alonso Teodoro was a bandit under sentence of death who declared himself a Villista to justify his acts.


Rafael B. Gómez

Ramón B. Gomez was owner of the Hacienda “El Totole”, in La Huerta, some miles from Autlán.  He issued a series of vales for 5c, 10c, 20c and 50c, which circulated widely in the district. They are known in a variety of designs, fonts, text, colours (due to the use of any available paper) and with different validating seals. Some carry a seal of the General Headquarters of the Brigada Moreno (EJERCITO CONVENCIONISTA - BRIGADA "MORENO"  - CUARTEL GENERAL) and so these are listed, mistakenly, as a military issue in catlogues including Mexican Paper Money (there are similar private issues, from Antonio R. Olivera in El Grullo, Juan Jiménez in El Limón and José V. Gómez, Teodoro Borbón and Herculano García in Purificación, without such a handstamp).

Gomez 5c straight

Gomez 5c straight reverse

Gomez 20c wavy

Gomez 50c wavy

Gomez 50c wavy reverse

One Rafael B. Gómez issue was entitled PROVISIONAL

Gomez 10c provisional

Gomez 20c provisional

Gomez 20c provisional reverse

Gomez 50c provisional 1

Gomez 50c provisional 1 reverse

Gomez 50c provisional 2

Gomez 50c provisional 2 reverse

Gomez 50c provisional 3

Gomez 50c provisional 3 reverse

while another was designated VALE PROVISIONAL

Gomez 5c vale provisional

Gomez 10c vale provisional

Gomez 10c vale provisional reverse

Gomez 20c vale provisional

Gomez 50c vale provisional 1

These were still being used in November 1915.

La Brigada "Moreno"

As stated, Roberto Adán Moreno was a hacendado in Unión de Tula, who gained control over the whole region around Autlán and imposed on the city its first Convencionista Presidente Municipal, José Maqueo Castellanos, on 12 March 1915. Moreno issued fichas that circulated throughout the region dominated by the Convencionistas, and were used to pay the troops, workers on the haciendas and public employees.

These were designated as from the head-quarters of the Convencionist Army and are known in a variety of colours and fonts. These were supposedly printed four to a sheet with one 5c, one 20c and two 50c.


Ejercito Convencionista 50c block 1

Ejercito Convencionista 50c block 1 reverse

Ejercito Convencionista 50c

Ejercito Convencionista 50c reverse

EJERCITO CONVENCIONISTA in thin block letters with a wavy border to the centre box

Ejercito Convencionista 50c block

Ejercito Convencionista 50c block reverse

EJERCITO CONVENCIONISTA in italics, with a wavy border to the centre box

Ejercito Convencionista 5c

Ejercito Convencionista 5c reverse

Ejercito Convencionista 20c 1

Ejercito Convencionista 20c

Ejercito Convencionista 20c reverse

With straight edge to centre box

Ejercito Convencionista 50c italic

Ejercito Villista 50c 2738 reverse

with Cuartel General spelt out in full

Ejercito Convencionista 5c general

There are several references to consignments of notes from Salvador Araiza, the printer in Unión de Tula, who owned the region’s sole printshop, but no details of the total amount. On 19 June Epigmenio Ramos left Autlan with 3,000 sheetsAHMAut, Sección Gobernación (Sección 6), 1915. On 24 June Capitán Medina took 1,000 sheetsibid.. However, the printers were also occupied in producing fichas for José V. Gómez in Villa Purificación and someone in El Grullo (probably Antonio R. Olivera)ibid.. On 18 August Teniente Santiago García took a packet containing 1,000 hojas, making a total of $2,000 in 50c notesibid.. By 20 August Araiza was running out of paperibid..

A consignment of $19,951 taken by Capitan 1o. Domingo Araiza on 30 August included $14,000 in 7,000 hojas impresas de fichas de la primera y segunda emisiónibid.(the first reference to more than one issue).

Moreno’s issue was withdrawn when the Carrancistas arrived. On 27 November the Tesorero General reported that he had $460 in Brigada Moreno that were no longer in circulationAHMAut, Sección Hacienda (Sección 2), 1915, a sum that had risen to $584,50 by the end of the yearibid..

La Brigada Méndez

Mendez 5c

Mendez 5c reverse

Mendez 10c

Mendez 10c reverse

The 5c example has the annotation 'Lagos de Moreno' on the reverse.

Other Villista issues came from the centre of the state and were authorised by the local municipalities.


Ejército Catolico Villista

Chiquilistlán is a small town located in the Sierra Tapalpa mountains, at the foot of a hill called Chiquilichi, some 75 kilometres to the south-west of the state capital Guadalajara.

A $1 note dated 20 December 1914[image needed].

El Pinabete

3er Regimiento de Caballeria

El Pinabete 2

This is a $2 voucher, typewritten on ledger paper, dated 30 November 1914, from the Comandancia of the Tercer Regimiento de Caballeria.

6a. División del Suroeste

Pinabete 5

Pinabete 5 reverse

This $5 note purports to be an issue from the Cuartel General in El Pinabete. dated 5 May 1915, and payable at the triumph of the Villista Católica revolution. It carries the names of General Bernadino Ch. Real as Jefe de la 6a. División del Suroeste, 2o Jefe Coronel Rosalio Berumén and Secretario T. Coronel Plutarco Miramontes.

However, this is a later fantasy, created for collectors, as confirmed by the advert on the back. The hook neck eagle in the seal was never used during the Revolution.


Tuxcueca is a town 50 kilometres south of Guadalajara.

Ejército Villista

Delgadillo 5

Delgadillo 5 reverse

  series from to total
$5 A  0001       includes numbers 0021CNBanxico #11341 to 0209


A $5 note, Serie A, with typed name Gral de Brigada Antonio Delgadillo and stamp on reverse ‘ESTADO DE JALISCO – TESORERIA MUNICIPAL DE TUXCUECA – 7o CANTON’. If this attribution is genuine, this note must date to late 1914.

[if addition of name is genuine, and if correct person]
Antonio Delgadillo was born in Tepic in 1881. As a Federal commander he defended the government of Porfirio Díaz against the Madero forces and later supported Victoriano Huerta against the Constitutionalists. He was placed in charge of the Primera Brigada of the División de Occidente in GuadalajaraThe Mexican Herald, 14 January 1914: El Pais, 15 January 1914 and then almost immediately took over the governorship of ColimaEl Independiente, Año II, Núm. 333, 20 January 1914 which he held until 20 July 1914, when he was driven out by troops under Alvaro Obregón.

Delgadillo reappears as a Villista general under Julián C. Medina, in charge of troops that were keeping Diéguez in check in Guadalajara. On 25 December 1914 Delgadillo paraded his troops through Guadalajara but two or three days later he and others were arrested. Delgadillo and seven others were then shot in the cemetery in Poncitlán, Jalisco, without a case formed against them and without a declared motive. Some say it was because they intended to form a breakaway state and keep out of the fighting, some because they represented the clerical faction, and other because they meant to make Delgadillo governor.



Concepción de Buenos Aires

Concepción de Buenos Aires is a town south of Guadalajara and east of Ciudad Guzmán.

Ejército Villista

A series of notes (5c, 10c, 20c and 50c) in various colours and designs with the stamp of ‘TESORERIA MUNICIPAL DE CONCEPCION DE BUENOS AIRES’. The numbers were originally handwritten but after c. 4900 they acquired a numbering machine.

The 5c design changed to spell out the denomination and the numbering of the variants 'VALE CINCO CENTAVOS', '5 CVS.  VALE CINCO CENTAVOS' and '5 CVS. 5 CVS.VALE CINCO CENTAVOS' show that they appeared on the same sheet plate.

Ejercito Villista 5c 1511

Ejercito Villista 5c 5315

Ejercito Villista 5c 5795

Ejercito Villista 5c 5795 reverse

Ejercito Villista 5c 7019

Ejercito Villista 5c 7019 reverse

Ejercito Villista 10c 886

Ejercito Villista 20c 1302

Ejercito Villista 20c 1302 reverse

Ejercito Villista 50c 2738

Ejercito Villista 50c 2738 reverse

  from to total
5c         VALE 5 CENTAVOS includes numbers 1511 to 3931
        VALE CINCO CENTAVOS includes numbers 5315 to 5498CNBanxico #11334
        CVS. 5 CVS. VALE CINCO CENTAVOS includes numbers 5357CNBanxico #11335 to 5795
        5 CVS. 5 CVS.VALE CINCO CENTAVOS includes numbers 4925 to 8998CNBanxico #11333
10c           includes numbers 886 to 2388CNBanxico #11338
20c           includes numbers 1302 to 1915CNBanxico #11339
50c           includes numbers 842 to 3058CNBanxico #11340