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The revolution in Chiapas

Once established the Constitutionalists published Carranza’s various pronouncements in the Periódico Oficial, starting with his new issuePeriódico Oficial, tomo XXXI, núm. 95, 30 September 1914.

By July 1915 notes from the banks of issue were being exchanged at a premium and Constitutionalist notes were being discounted so on 10 July Secretario General Rangel sent a circular to all the Presidentes Municipales in the state reminding them that all notes had to be accepted at face valuePeriódico Oficial, núm. 46, 14 July 1915.

Under governors Jesús Agustín Castro (13 September 1914 – 28 May 1915) and Blas Corral (29 May 1915 to 24 September 1916) many of Carranza’s edicts were repackaged, by 'topping and tailing' as local decrees. These included  decree núm. 32Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 30, 13 May 1916, decree núm. 33ibid., decree núm. 39Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 36, 3 June 1916, decree núm. 47Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 39, 14 June 1916, decree núm. 55Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 43, 5 July 1916, decree núm. 75Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 56, 16 August 1916, decree núm. 81Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 60, 30 August 1916, and decree núm. 83Periódico Oficial, tomo XXXIII, núm. 63, 9 September 1916

These pronouncements occasionally led to confusion, as elsewhere. Thus, Carranza’s circular núm. 48 of 1 December 1915  led to businesses refusing to accept $1 and $5 Ejército Constitucionalista notes because they were datelined from Chihuahua. Manuel R. Ortiz, the Administrador del Timbre in Tuxtla Gutiérrez, told businesses and the public that they had to be acceptedEl Regenerador, Tomo I, Núm. 61, 26 December 1915.

Likewise, businesses refused to accept well-used notes or demanded that a purchaser spend the whole amount on the pretext of not having change. In March 1916 the governor Blas Corral issued an instruction[text needed]  to the jefes, officials and troops to report such behaviour to the Jefatura del Estado Mayor, for suitable punishment. Members of the public should complain to the AyuntamientoEl Regenerador, Tomo II, Núm. 77, 12 March 1916.

As elsewhere, local authorities punished people who did not accept the currency at face value. Thus in March 1916 the Presidente Municipal of Comitán sentenced Diego Utrilla to a month’s arrestEl Regenerador, Tomo II, Núm. 80. 26 March 1916 and the Presidente Municipal of Tonalá, Fidel Gutiérrez Vera, fined the Chinese Alejandro YecEl Regenerador, Tomo II, Núm. 82. 2 April 1916. Despite the corporal punishments and fines imposed, the government's orders to accept the new paper money continued for a long time through telegrams, telephone calls and communiqués, since the people in general distrusted the value of the Carranza’s issuesAMSC, exp. 32, Sección Secretaria Municipal, Correspondencia recibida, Secretario General Rangel to Presidente Municipal, San Cristóbal 8 March 1916 and AHMSC, exp. 36, Sección Secretaria Municipal, Telefonemas correspondientes a los meses de mayo, junio y Agosto telephone núm. 28 Secretario General Rangel to Presidente Municipal.

On 15 June the Jefe de Estado Mayor in Tuxtla Gutiérrez noted that businesses were refusing to accept low value notes and many had closed their establishments, He ordered them to reopenEl Regenerador, Tomo II, Núm. 103, 15 June 1916.

On 12 June Carranza had acknowledged a delay in providing infalsificable notes so on 30 June the presidentes municipales were told that taxes should be paid in Ejército Constitucionalista and Veracruz notes at a rate of ten for oneAHMSC, exp. 36, Sección Secretaria Municipal, Telefonemas correspondientes a los meses de mayo, junio y agosto, 1916.