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Forced loans

The Banco Minero was subject to various predations during the early years of the revolution.

On 31 March 1911 Coronel Orestes Pereyra took $10,000 and P. Arguelles, Jefe Militar del Ejército Revolucionario Antirrelectionista in Torreón, took $2,500 from the branch in Gómez Palacio as a forced loan. The manager Francisco C. Terrazas refused to hand over the money without a direct government order and the Ministro de Gobernación in a telegram of 10 June authorised the loan. In July 1912 the bank tried to claim for this money, but it was held that Pereyra, though a coronel of rurales, was not the Jefe de Armas and had no authority to order the forced loanAGN, Fondo Gobernación Periódo Revolucionario, caja 54, exp 57.

On 20 May 1911 Maclovio Herrera, leader of the revolutionary forces, and Jefe de Armas J. Escalante took a forced loan of $10,000 from ParralAGN, Antiguos Bancos de Emisión, caja 302 receipt for $10,000 signed by Secretario del Jefe de Armas A R Escalante, visto bueno of Jefe Maclovio Herrera, 20 May 1911.

Two days later, on 22 May 1911, Gustavo A. Madero took $27,900.80 in billetes and metálico and $1.036.80 in U.S. dollars from Ciudad JuárezCEHM, Fondo Creel, 149, 38352, report on Banco Minero by Francisco C. Terrazas.

On 4 March 1912 José Inés Salazar and Antonio Rojas imposed a forced loan of $20,000 on Juan Terrazas, at the bank’s branch in Ciudad Juárez. Terrazas paid with a cheque drawn on an El Paso bankAGN, Antiguos Bancos de Emisión, caja 91.

On 25 March and 1 April 1912 Francisco Villa took $50,000 from the branch in ParralCEHM, Fondo Creel, 149, 38352, report on Banco Minero by Francisco C. Terrazas. In a letter written to President Madero from the Penitenciary in Mexico City, Villa claimed that the $50,000 belonged to Juan and Cástulo Baca, who had said that their money was available to overthrow Madero’s government (AGN, Fondo Francisco Madero, caja 47, exp. 1292-1) and, in addition, José de la Luz Soto, Jefe of the garrison in Parral, threateningly demanded $6,600. Miguel Chavez Dominguez, manager of the Parral branch, reported the facts to Enrique Creel in Mexico City, who was horrified by what he readST papers, Part II, box 1, 26 April 1912. The bank’s attorney, Joaquín D. Casasus, asked to be reimbursed for the $50,000 that Villa had takenST papers, Part II, box 2, 4 July 1912. The bank received a receipt for $50,000 dated 1 April 1912 from Coronel Villa, Teniente Coronel Guadalupe Gaudea and Mayor E. C. Chávez, witnessed by the Administrador Principal de Timbre C. Carlos Villegas and Recaudador de Rentas C. Rafael V. Tarín, with the signatures legalised by the Presidente Municipal and Secretario of Hidalgo del Parral..

Villa's version is recorded by an unidentified correspondent. "At that moment Madero was called away by Gen. Téllez and I was left alone with the bandit [Villa]. Clad in picturesque charro costume, big-boned and alert, with heavy, bronzed face set with eyes bright and cunning enough to serve a tiger, he looked as one might imagine a robust representative of the lower regions who had disguised himself just enough to visit without fear of detention a more civilized realm. His speech was somber and slow, his silence deep and suspicious.
“Are the sacks really filled with flour, colonel?” I asked him.
He grinned. “Flour from the bank of Parral – Terrazas’ flour that financed Orozco’s revolution,” was the chuckling reply. He then volunteered the following information: “I took Parral after a fierce battle and for eleven days I was the master of the town, but, receiving no reinforcements and being surrounded by superior forces, I decided to abandon it. Before evacuating, however, I went to the Banco Minero, owned by Luis Terrazas, and approached the cashier’s window. “My name is Pancho Villa,’ I said. “How much cash have you on hand?” The cashier answered in a weak voice, “180,000 pesos, senor.” “I need them right away,” said I. “Fill the sacks that are loaded on the mules outside of your building and muy pronto.”
“Upon obeying, the frightened little man begged me for a receipt for the money, a matter for his personal protection. I handed him one that read: “I have received from the Banco Minero of Parral the sum of 160,000 pesos as a booty of war which the federal authorities will not have to repay.” Then I folded up the paper and wrote on top of it: “You have been for a long time supporting and paying money to the rebels in the North; just for change pay some of the federals in the South.” Then I patter the little man, gave him the receipt and a cigarette, and left him with a “muchas gracias, senor.”Revista de Revistas, quoted in Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 24 April 1914.

In May and June a total of $5,250.53 was taken from the branch in Ciudad Camargo. The bank received a receipt for $2,000, dated 26 May from General en Jefe de la Plaza, José Inés Salazar and two receipts, dated 2 June, for a total of $2,856 from General Antonio Rojas and Francisco del Toro. Finally, $394.53 was given to Colonel Antonio VillarrealAGN, Antiguos Bancos de Emisión, caja 302.

On 3 March 1913 there was a forced loan of $3,000 from the branch in Hermosillo.

On 20 March 1913 $27,900.80 was given on the orders of Gustavo Madero, Ministro de Hacienda del Gobierno Provisional, to Alberto Fuentes, Administrador de la Aduana in Ciudad Juárez.

On 20 May 1913 there was another forced loan of 1,036.80 US dollars ($2,073.60 Mexican) in Ciudad Juárez.

On 22 July 1913 forces under General Calixto Contreras occupied Gómez Palacio and sacked the bank’s offices and took $4,142.49CEHM, Fondo Creel, 149, 38352, report on Banco Minero by Francisco C. Terrazas. The manager, Rafael García Galán, managed to save certain documents, $14,500 in issued notes and $31,055 in decommissioned notes (which had a ‘PAID’ perforation). The former were entrusted to the Banco Nacional de México branch to be credited to the Banco Minero’s account and the latter deposited in the Banco de la LagunaST papers, Part II, box 2, letter from Rafael García Galán to Enrique Creel, 13 October 1914.

On 5 October 1913 General José Isabel Robles took a forced loan of $30,000 from the bank in Gómez PalacioCEHM, Fondo Creel, 193, 49613; AGN, Comisión Monetaria/Antiguos Bancos de Emisión, caja 302. The four receipts were 13 October $7,000 (CEHM, Fondo Creel, 193, 49614); 15 October $5,000 (CEHM, Fondo Creel, 193, 49615); 18 October $10,000 (CEHM, Fondo Creel, 193, 49616); 19 October $8,000 (CEHM, Fondo Creel, 193, 49617).

On 17 November 1913 Colonel Juan N. Medina, as Villa’s Jefe de Estado Mayor, forced the branch in Ciudad Juárez to hand over its holdings: $83, 880 in Mexican bank notes and $811.95 in American notes and coins. He left behind $2,126 in cancelled notes (billetes mutilados y retirados de la circulación)AGN, Antiguos Bancos de Emisión, caja 302. General Villa gave a receipt, with the promise to return the money when the Constitutionalist treasury was in shape to do soEl Paso Herald, 18 November 1913.

In addition on 10 February 1913 three consignments of $10,000 oro nacional each were taken in an assault on a train at Los Tablos, San Luis Potosí.