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Emiliano G. Saravia

Emiliano G. Saravia had served as Interventor of the Banco de Durango from October 1912Figaro, Tomo I, Núm. 7, 31 October 1912 to April 1913Figaro, Tomo I, Núm. 29, 3 April 1913.

Saravia, a Villista,  took over as provisional governor on 14 November 1914. He produced $1 notes dated October 1914 and January 1915, with his signature together with Antonio Gaxiola as secretary and J. M. Olargaray as Director General.

These were printed by the firm of M. Gómez in Durango. Unsurprisingly the reverse is based on Villa’s popular dos caritas  issue  with  a  vista  (of  Durango  and  its  cathedral) supported by two heraldic beasts, an ovaloid border and an almost identical frame for the denomination.

Emiliano G. Saravia y Murúa was born on 3 May 1857 in the Hacienda de San Pedro Mártir, Durango, into a distinguished colonial family. He was a practising lawyer and newspaper editor, served as a federal deputy in 1911-1912 and was substitute governor from 1 August to 15 September 1911. He was a Maderista, who then fought under Francisco Villa, and was provisional governor in 1914 to 1915.

He married Juana Ríos Laurenzana and was father of Emiliano G. Saravia y Ríos, the Villista governor of San Luis Potosí.

He died on 10 November 1920.

sig Saravia

GaxiolaAntonio Gaxiola Delgadillo was born on 25 July 1890. As a youth he was a poet, writing both love poems and criticising the Porfirian dictatorship, though his poetry was unedited until 1953.

In 1910 he participated in Madero’s political campaign, helping to organise Madero’s visit to Durango. He was founder and director of El Demócrata, the newsletter of the Partido Democrático Durangueño and when Madero was assassinated, defended the revolutionary cause at great personal risk.

When the Constitutionalists failed to take the city of Durango in April 1913 Gaxiola was among others arrested, imprisoned and sentenced to death but was freed when the revolutionaries captured the city on 17 June. He gave up his editorship to become Pastor Rouaix’ chief of staff (Oficial Mayor de Gobierno).

Afterwards he served in the ranks of the División del Norte, rising to Coronel, and following Villa when he split with Carranza. Later, he rejoined the Carrancistas, serving as a Coronel under General Francisco Murguía and dying in combat in Chihuahua on 30 March 1917.

sig Gaxiola
J. M. Olargaray sig Olargaray


These had a variety of codes printed at the top centre or on the right hand.

  Date Series from to total
$1 October 1914 L         O  
        EM includes number 2704CNBanxico #4033
        IC includes number 87902CNBanxico #4028
        AR includes number 98074
M         T includes number 10255CNBanxico #10909
        A includes numbers 26199CNBanxico #4035 and 71352CNBanxico #4030 
        E includes number 87328CNBanxico #4029
January 1915 N         S: includes numbers 08573 and 48146CNBanxico #10915
        ME includes number 50807CNBanxico #4034
        M includes number 80812CNBanxico #4032
        A includes number 97175CNBanxico #4031


M. Gómez also produced a 50c note, dated December 1914 with the same three signatories.

These had a variety of codes printed on the right hand.

  Series from to total
50c C         XI  
        XX includes number 30226
D         AR  
E         R  
E2         T  


Finally, we have proofs of a $2 note that was not issued but was the basis for a later Arrieta $5 note.

Saravia 2

The cortes de caja of the Dirección General de Rentas, signed by J. M. Olagaray as Director General, record the following Ingresos and Egresos (costs or cancellations) for the issue of bonos.

Date Ingresos Egresos
30 November 1914Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm.1, 1 January 1915 $44,800.00  
31 December 1914Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm. 25, 10 June 1915 105,200.00 $1,206.20
31 January 1915Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm. 25, 10 June 1915 119,000.00 1,000.00
28 February 1915Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm. 27, 20 June 1915 181,000.00 6,631.00
31 March 1915Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm. 28, 27 June 1915    
30 June 1915Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XL, Núm. 4, 25 July 1915/ 18,000.00